The Role of communication in the mental development of the child
Personality, it is only in their relations with others, and only with them does this, by remark E. V. Ilyenkov, “a specific ensemble of the social qualities of human individuality”. Apparently, there is some truth in the fact that the formation of the inner world of man is inextricably linked with communication.
The most important thesis of L. S. Vygotsky that all higher mental functions are initially formed as external, that is, those in which is involved not one but at least two subjects. And they only gradually become internal, turn from “interpsychic” in the “intrapsychic” (Vygotsky, 1983). Child development is understood as the process of assigning children socio-historical experience of previous generations of humanity. The experience is described of the kind embodied in the products of material and spiritual culture of people, but it is hidden in them in such a way that directly it cannot be seen — the new generation can remove it only with the help of seniors, who from this point of view are living bearers of universal experience (D. B. Elkonin, 19786). Communication with older for a small child is the only possible context in which he perceivesand “assigns” produced by people earlier. That is why communication is the main factor of General mental development of children. It is important to emphasize that communication plays a crucial role not only in enriching the content of the mind of a child, defines indirect structure specifically human mental processes.
Three groups of facts to prove the crucial role of communication in the General mental development of the child:
the study “child Mowgli”;
study” nature and causes of the so-called hospitalism;
direct determination of the influence of communication on the mental development in formative experiments.
The results of psychological research “Child Mowgli”, who grew up in isolation from society, they find a deep and irreversible hypoplasia (R. Davis, 1940; A. Gesell, 1941). Today no one doubts that adaptation to life among animals is of a young child caught in the midst of them, the deviation from the path usually go human children. Without the support of adults he doesn’t use his natural ability to become Homo sapiens, and then, apparently, completely loses it. It’s moving on all fours being entirely dependent suckled their animals.
The phenomenon of hospitalism showed up at the first attempt to establish nesamani education deprived parents of young children. At the end of last and beginning of this century there were publish and public shelters, which soon turned into a “factory of the angels” — so great was the mortality, especially in the first months and years of life children. Children who were left to live, sharply lagged behind in the General physical, and especially mental development: to 3 years they did not own basic self-help skills, does not comply with tidiness, hardly talked, didn’t respond well to educational influences, have shown an amazing passivity or, on the contrary, restlessness and aggressiveness. Describes the complex and called hospitalism.
R. Spitz associates hospitalism with lack of maternal care for the child.
Undeniable merit W. Goldfarb M. Ribble, R. Spitz and A. Freud and C. Dunn. X. The Reingold and others is that they attracted the attention of scientists and practical workers in the communication of young children with adults, showed his great role in the proper development of the child and the harmonic formation of his personality, stressed the importance of the earliest months and years of life to snap a meaningful, deeply saturated contacts of children with adults. But work neopaganismo directions turn people against public education of children and thereby hindered the development of its network and improving its methods. Using the term mothering, researchers from the psychoanalytic group stressed the indispensability of biological mother and fatal to the child the nature of the separation with her — gave birth to his woman.
Meanwhile, there is nothing fatal separation from the mother for any child. Of course, if the mother is alive and can bring up a child easier and better when she does her children. Her interest in him, affection, care have some biological basis, as in all species, the cubs which are born helpless. But the natural basis of only that comes to the development of parental love in humans. The love of parents to their children — it is bright, of high, truly moral emotion, combined with the understanding that children are the heirs of the works of the fathers, its rulers and successors. So a stranger is in principle able to replace the child’s mother entirely, if he was an orphan, or in part, if the mother is, but it works. Only need this man clearly aware of their responsibilities and clearly knew what he should do with the child.
The first in the world have achieved success in the eradication of hospitalism Soviet pediatricians and psychologists, who established that the main cause of this serious condition is the lack of contact of the little orphans with adults, or “lack of communication”, in the words of N. M. Selivanova. Together with N. M. Accarino he created the scientific basis of education in our country young children in nurseries and children’s homes, putting at the forefront of pedagogical work with them from the first days of life and smack in the center of ETSI work staff communication with students (the Education of children. 1955). A new approach to child led to the eradication of hospitalism in Soviet children’s custodial institutions (children’s homes, nursery homes).
Psychologists believe that in the public sphere, there still remains the basis for smooth, soft forms of hospitalism, and therefore, scholars and practitioners must not relax our efforts, constantly working on the development and improvement of educational influences on children.
Thus, the complete isolation of children from adults, not allowing them to become people and leaves on the position of the animal. The lack of contact with adults (“lack of communication”) is also dramatically affects the mental development of children, reducing its resistance to diseases, the rate of mental development and its level achieved in infancy and early childhood. However, the evidence on the role of communication in child development and related to the above two groups are the result of extremely adverse conditions. No one creates them, and no one will intentionally play them for scientific purposes. But the conclusion is that their credibility is low. After all, each described in the literature had been the whole complex of conditions, the significance of which could not be controlled. So, “child Mowgli” is extremely rare, and hard to figure out whether they were perfectly healthy until they got the education to the animals whether they suffered physical and psychological trauma, etc. Children with signs of hospitalism usually are born to parents with different social diseases, they are often unwilling and not expecting or even trying to get rid of them in early pregnancy, their birth is often accompanied by pathological childbirth, etc. So the absence of the mother and the lack of communication imposed on a number of other adverse factors, the value of which is obviously also great. That is why we attach particular importance to the group of positive facts that demonstrate the role of communication in the child’s development, not obtained in prejudicial situations, and through targeted the inclusion of communication in the lives of children and to identify emerging shifts.